In previous post we learn about some of the punctuation marks. We also learned how to use them and where to use them. Here are some more punctuation marks that we use generally when we are writing in English.
a) A semi colon is used to join sentences with principal clauses not connected by a conjunction.
Example: The rocket rose; it sudden burst into a ball of flame.
We were confident; the game was about to start; I felt nervous.
b) It is used to separate clauses which already contain commas.
Last year, my brother won every match; there was no one who could defeat him.
a) Before enumeration of examples.
Example: This year I’m studying these subjects: geography, English, history, maths and biology.
b) To introduce a quotation.
Example: Francis says: “Reading makes a full man, writing an exact man, speaking a ready man”.
c) To introduce statement which tells more about the one that comes before it.
Example: My mother taught me two golden rules: I was to do my best and never tell lies.
Question marks are used at the end of a sentence that asks a direct question.
Did your sister do her homework?
Is the vehicle repaired?
Question marks are not used
a) When using indirect or reported speech.
Example: He was asked if he wanted more salary.
b) When the sentence is a request.
Example: Would you please pass the sauce.
Exclamation marks are used after words or a group of words which express sudden feeling: Alas! , Hurrah!, etc.
Exclamation marks are not used along with a full stop.
If the exclamation mark comes after one or two words, start the next words with a capital letter.
Example: Help! Fetch me a glass of water!
Hyphens are used
a) Hyphens are used to connect parts of some compound words.
Examples: well-written, mother-in-law.
b) Hyphens are used in numbers and fractions.
Apostrophes are used
a) With nouns to show ownership and possession.
Example: dog’s paw, men’s room etc.
b) To write plurals of numbers and letters of an alphabet.
Example: There are two S’s in this word.
c) In expressions using time.
Example: a minute’s rest
A five year’s plan.
Two year’s time
d) In names of churches
Example: St.Joseph’s School.
e) In names of churches ending in ‘S’.
f) In place of numbers in dates.
Example: ’85 (instead of 1985)
g) To show ownership in a phrase.
Example: The king of Bhutan’s palace.
h) To show joint possession.
Tom and Mary’s cat.(otherwise Tom’s and Mary’s cats)